Simon T, Hero B, Faldum A, et al. are within an immunosuppressed history frequently. Thus, although it is certainly feasible showing the antibody binds osteosarcoma cells, it really is Benzylpenicillin potassium difficult to assess tumor response and cytotoxicity clearly. One potential strategy is to assess the efficiency of anti-GD2 antibodies with cytokines in canine types of osteosarcoma, as the canines have got functional immune systems fully. These scholarly research should address tumor response, time to development, and overall success in canines with osteosarcoma treated with anti-GD2 antibody therapy. Additionally, it really is unclear if the GD2 antigen continues to be in the cell surface area of osteosarcoma cells after treatment with anti-GD2 antibody just like neuroblastoma.31,32 Dog studies should measure the persistence of surface area GD2 antigen after antibody treatment, and may measure the utility of GD2 expression being a predictive biomarker. The indegent success of sufferers with repeated and metastatic osteosarcoma, despite years of clinical studies, highlights the necessity for book anti-cancer agents. Our discovering that GD2 is certainly extremely portrayed on osteosarcoma cells, paired with recent data showing the effectiveness of anti-GD2 therapy support the development of clinical trials in patients with metastatic and relapsed osteosarcoma. Acknowledgments Funding: This research was supported by the Foster Foundation, Swim Across America, and the Paul Calabresi Career Development Award for Clinical Oncology (M.R.) No. K12 CA-132783-04 from the National Cancer Institute. We would also like to thank the National Cancer Institute for generously donating the 14.GD2a antibody. Footnotes The authors do Benzylpenicillin potassium not report any conflicts of interest. Ganglioside GD2 is highly expressed on osteosarcomas. Clinical trials are needed to assess the efficacy of targeting GD2 in patients with osteosarcoma. REFERENCES 1. Chou AJ, Kleinerman ES, Krailo MD, et al. Addition of muramyl tripeptide to chemotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed metastatic osteosarcoma. Cancer. 2009;115(22):5339C5348. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 2. Gill J, Ahluwalia MK, Geller D, Gorlick R. New targets and approaches in osteosarcoma. Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2012 [PubMed] [Google SMARCA6 Scholar] 3. Coiffier B, Lepage E, Brire J, et al. CHOP chemotherapy plus rituximab compared with CHOP alone in elderly patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. New England Benzylpenicillin potassium Journal of Medicine. 2002;346(4):235C242. [PubMed] Benzylpenicillin potassium [Google Scholar] 4. Piccart-Gebhart MJ, Procter M, Leyland-Jones B, et al. Trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 2005;353(16):1659C1672. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 5. Yu AL, Gilman AL, Ozkaynak MF, et al. Anti-GD2 antibody with GM-CSF, interleukin-2, and isotretinoin for neuroblastoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 2010;363(14):1324C1334. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 6. Hersey P, Jamal O, Henderson C, Zardawi I, D’Alessandro G. Expression of the gangliosides GM3, GD3 and GD2 in tissue sections of normal skin, naevi, primary and metastatic melanoma. International Journal of Cancer. 1988;41(3):336C343. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 7. Martinez C, Hofmann TJ, Marino R, Dominici M, Horwitz EM. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells express the neural ganglioside GD2: a novel surface marker for the identification of MSCs. Blood. 2007;109(10):4245C4248. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 8. Svennerholm L, Bostr?m K, Fredman P, et al. Gangliosides and allied glycosphingolipids in human peripheral nerve and spinal cord. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 1994;1214(2):115C123. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 9. Cheung N, Kushner B, Yeh S, Larson S. 3F8 monoclonal antibody treatment of patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma: a phase II study. International Journal of Oncology. 1998;12(6):1299. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 10. Cheung N, Lazarus H, Miraldi FD, et al. Ganglioside GD2 specific monoclonal antibody 3F8: a phase I study in patients with neuroblastoma and malignant melanoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1987;5(9):1430C1440. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 11. Heiner JP, Miraldi F, Kallick S, et al. Localization of GD2-specific monoclonal antibody 3F8 in human osteosarcoma. Cancer Research. 1987;47(20):5377C5381. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 12. Cheung NKV, Canete A,.